The patient suffer from cancers ranging from Breast cancer, Lung cancer, Bone cancer, Blood cancer, Intestinal cancer, Skin cancer and other cancer ailments.
The leading hospitals in the United States where cancer patients travel for treatment -
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
The Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson University Hospital
Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania
Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland
The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University
Emory Winship Cancer Institute
Moffitt Cancer Center
Taussig Cancer Institute, The Cleveland Clinic
The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center
Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes Jewish Hospital/Washington University
(St. Louis, MS)
University of Colorado Cancer Center
MD Anderson Cancer Center, The University of Texas
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles
(Los Angeles, CA)
Stanford Cancer Institute
(Palo Alto, CA)
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco
(San Francisco, CA)
The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington
More on Lung cancer prevention
Levels of prevention in controlling Lung cancer
Preventive healthcare or preventive medicine or prophylactic medicine refers to the steps taken towards prevention of disease rather than treatment of the disease. The World Health Organization defines health as “a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO, 1946). Disease or imbalances in health are a result of various factors like environmental factors, lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition. Lifestyle related diseases and mortality due to the same is on the rise today. According to WHO factsheet released in January 2015, non communicable diseases kill 38 million people per year and at least half of these deaths occur due to modifiable factors. This figure highlights the importance of preventive measures in controlling these diseases. The CDC (2013) mentions that Americans use preventive healthcare at half the recommended rate. Preventive strategies are important for the improvement of national health. Significant healthcare related cost savings occur when importance is placed on preventive rather than curative strategies.
In the US, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths (CDC, 2014). Tobacco smoking is dangerous as it not only adversely affects the users, but also those who passively inhale the smoke. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for approximately 41,000 deaths per year in the US (CDC, 2014). Cigarette smoking decreases the life expectancy by 10 years. But the good news is that, if smoking is given up before the age of 40, the risk of dying due to smoking related diseases is reduced by 92% (CDC, 2014). Preventive strategies are important for the improvement of national health. Significant healthcare related cost savings occur when importance is placed on preventive rather than curative strategies for controlling lung cancer.
Levels of prevention
There are three main levels of prevention:
- Primary prevention
- Secondary prevention
- Tertiary prevention
Primordial prevention comes into play when the target population has never been exposed to the risk factors. For example a ban on tobacco use can be considered as primordial prevention, as it totally eliminates the major risk factor. This method of prevention cannot be practically employed for obvious reasons.
Primary prevention focuses on avoiding the disease from occurring. Primary prevention is employed when an individual is exposed to the risk factors, but active disease has not yet developed. Various methods employed include education, increasing awareness, developing immunity against a disease, vaccination and lifestyle modifications. There are two important components of primary prevention, namely health promotion and specific protection. Health promotion mainly focuses on lifestyle modifications like regular exercise and eating healthy and nutritious food. These measures are important as they improve the overall health. Specific prevention on the other hand, specifically targets the disease. In case of lung cancer, cessation of smoking and anti-smoking laws are some examples. An important component of specific prevention is extensively educating the public about the ill effects of smoking. Education increases awareness and encourages people to make healthy choices. Helping people in overcoming smoking addiction is used as another targeted modality for specific prevention of lung cancer.
Secondary prevention focuses on early recognition of disease, when it is still asymptomatic state. It prevents the progression of disease from asymptomatic to symptomatic stage. Early diagnosis is the cornerstone of secondary prevention. Most commonly used methods for early diagnosis include screening tests and regular health check up. Screening by means of imaging studies like X-Ray and CT scan are commonly used for early detection of lung cancer. In addition, bronchoscopy and brush biopsy can also be used for screening of lung cancer. Early detection helps in initiation of prompt treatment and better survival rates.
Tertiary prevention aims at reducing the ill-effects of the disease. It focuses on rehabilitation of the patient and reducing the physical, mental as well as emotional and social impact of the disease. Tertiary prevention improves the quality of life of patients. It focuses on limiting disability, reducing pain, reducing complications of the disease and decreasing mental trauma. Most of the cases of lung cancer are fatal in later stages, even with treatment. In such patients, tertiary prevention plays a very important role in improving the quality of life and reducing pain and disability. Aggressive treatment and targeted therapies tailored specifically for the patient are sometimes helpful in increasing longevity.
For prevention of lung cancer, primary prevention plays the most important role. Aggressive use of primary prevention strategies will help in overcoming the national disease burden as well as lowering the mortality rates due to the disease.
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