Previous brain-drain literature states that the sending country considers emigration of qualified professionals as damaging for an economy. Decline of human capital creates a negative impact on economic growth and welfare in the long-run. For instance, during 1991 and 2005, emigration of research workers and lecturers made research institutions and universities of the country lose about 4500 months of the training courses to the foreign universities especially in the U.S.; England; Austria; Greece; Germany; Italy and France. This number is just twice the total number of training months allocated to higher education institutes (Marchiori et.al, 2013).
Albanian research institutions and universities due to this movement suffered a reduction in their competitive capacity and weakened their work quality. For instance, a complain was made by the university rector. It was said that there were evident consequences of brain drain. There was significant deterioration in work quality. The standard of lecturing was also poor as a lecturer who has graduated recently can never have the know-how equivalent to that of an experienced lecturer. Lack of experts sometimes calls for ad hoc commission payment for addressing particular problems. The ones who were highly skilled had migrated and the ones who were lagging behind were recruited by the private sector (Mendoza, 2013).
Another significant effect of brain drain is its impact on failure of the research teams. In most of the research institutions, project implementation is always done in teams and each member is responsible for a particular segment based on their field of competence. Skilled professionals indirectly or directly impart their skills and knowledge to the team members (Pi-chung, 2007). Few of these experts who were a part of such a team emigrate resulting in failure of the project, loss of additional skills which could have been taught indirectly to others and team decomposition. Extensive studies were carried out from 1960 to 1970 because during that period permanent and large number of talented and highly qualified professionals emigrated from developing nations. This was quite detrimental to its economic development and growth. Qualified and talented professionals are a developing nation’s rare capital and they suffer when large numbers of these people leave the nation (Piras, 2013).
According to Sampson (2013) another factor is that increasing popularity of brain drain and increasing number of young people emigrating from research institutions and universities has created a negative impact on the motivation levels of research workers in the long-run. It is a fact that an individual taking part in research work would enjoy the benefits only in the long-run. For instance, historians usually have to work in archives and libraries for multiple years to generate significant findings. However, brain drain motivates people to spread their thinking wings over a shorter period (Sampson, 2013).
Young people are more inclined towards programming in the short-run. Some students consider a university as a trampoline for reaching new countries or a source for winning scholarships. They always hope for better options to follow. In some research institutions, there is sheer wastage of the stored memory of work done till date as no knowledge or experience is passed on from one generation to another. This is a major concern that was highlighted by an institution’s head under the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (Piras, 2013).
Xiaohua (2010) describes that brain drain thus has a lost impact on these institutions with respect to their research memory. Efforts have been made to develop a register for the database and research results that can be accessed by all. However, it is easy said than done. Another comment was made by the head of some other institution saying that the emigration peculiarity of one of their research workers was the emigration of highly-qualified and middle-aged people. As a result of this, the institution was left with only the extremes of age groups like the youngest and the oldest contingents. The most challenging task is the dissemination of know-how because young professionals lack the required experience (Xiaohua, 2010).
Brain drain poses another negative impact of not producing any positive signals towards the sending country. Potential investors consider the emigration of professionals a negative image of the sending country. Thus, foreign investors start doubting if the country sending out the professionals will be a good choice for investing their funds. Some investors consider the emigration of the professionals as a signal of uncertain political and economic future of a country (Xiaohua, 2010). Thus, it can be said that the country of origin loses the future and current pool of human capital with emigration of skilled professionals. Emigrating professionals usually leave the country along with their dependents when compared with other groups leaving a country. However, emigrating professionals have greater chances of becoming qualified and educated professionals in the time to come. Thus, the country of origin loses this pool of professionals in future also (Agbiboa, 2012).