- Conclusion and Recommendations
The perception that there is a fixed amount of skills available in the market it is fallacious in the long run. The global marketplace for skills is dynamic which is determined by demand and supply. However, this is not necessarily the case in the medium and long term as the increasing reward will boot the demand and the supply. When rewards increase the motivation for people to make investments in acquiring the skills demanded increase. Brain drain theorists make another mistake in situations like assuming a very tight link between the input variable of a population of health workers with the health benefits in this case which is the output. They have once more misjudged the role that incentives play in determining skill acquisition. We come to the conclusion that when the numbers of skilled workers is increased in isolated areas welfare does not increase in a direct proportion.
The intentions on putting a ban on recruitment of skills from poorer nations might produce unintended results like increasing the poverty levels. Latent potential might not be tapped as there would be a lack of motivation to invest in skill acquisition. The global environment would also suffer as a result of not having access to acquired skills. This might not have been the original intention of the well meaning brain drain theorists but if their well meaning recommendations are deployed the results would turn out to be a major disaster.
Students must be made aware of their colonial history and neo-colonial backgrounds right from the initial years of their careers as students.
They must be taught in a systematic and consistent manner, the reasons behind the unaltered state in terms of structure and functionality of these societies over the years. There has been a statistically rise in the rate of ‘brain drain’ in Taiwan (Kalipeni et.al, 2012).
Brain drain is a crude phrase to describe a situation where the intelligent, educated and talented people migrate to other countries. This condition mostly takes place with new generation of the developing and under-developed countries. The tendency is to emigrate to other countries and for better opportunities and better standards to living. They do so as the socio-political and economic conditions of their countries are in turmoil.
Training should be meted out in such a way to eliminate socio-economic inequalities. The outlook should be to eradicate feelings or classism and the elitist attitude. These ideologies should be vested more for trainee medical practitioners, academicians and other professionals. This is give rise to the way to development. Firstly, this would discourage the migration of worker from West Indies to other metropolitans, as they would have strong ideologies opposing their individualistic ideals. Secondly, with this evolution in thinking, only a selected few West Indian would subject themselves voluntarily as to the metropolitan methods of economic development (Özden & Schiff, 2006).
It is imperative that the young nationals of the island are made to recognize the self-sustaining and developmental vision, plan and purpose of their country; more importantly they should be actively involved in the same. This is achievable when the control of the countries resources, both natural and human is free from any foreign influence and is the hands of the native West Indians. This can be achieved through state ownership, which would work as an initial step in handover of the resources. The youth should not be merely taught in theory but must be taught to bring this theory to practice.
Over the years of exposure to discrimination, Taiwanese have lost their sense of self-confidence; worst still a feeling undervaluation of themselves. This in turn has led to disinterested and detachment to their surroundings. To help them regain their self-confidence and assist the development of their country, Taiwanese need to have better knowledge and deep understanding of their socio-cultural, political and economic environment.
There is undoubtedly a strong link between the development of local technology and educational development of the nationals along with the steady control of the resources in the hands of the natives. It is a well-known fact that capitalist nations control the development and then distribution of technical knowledge to the so called third world countries. West Indies, is also a victim of such a system, where the integration of developmental knowledge in disciplined by their capitalist influencers.
Now coming to the growth of the scientific community the island must pool their resources. In addition to this the establishment of institutions for scientists, for the enhancement of coordinating experiments, theory based knowledge and research. More importantly provision for Socio-political enlightenment.
This study further illustrates the requirement and importance of national integration from a socio-political and economic point of view. Services provided by the West Indians need to be channelized and streamlined to avoid duplication of services. The strengthening of the population in terms of their ability to work will indefinitely increase their sense of personal security in terms of psychological strength, boost of confidence, individuality and sense of community in a world majorly dominated by the so called powerful nations.
The zeal to bring about a revolution must come from the Taiwanese themselves. The masses are subject to suffer the most through the capitalist dominated scenario in the Taiwan. It is most the ashes of the demoralized souls and leaders should emerge flagging the route to a socio-economic change. The proposal is in favour that the workers should benefit from the knowledge passes on from their fellow skilled and educated worker. This would create an environment where mutual benefits can be enjoyed and shared by Taiwanese within their own talents and available resources rather than slaving to fulfill the needs for dominating nations (Tanner, 2005).
The principal premise of this study expounds that migration and development go hand in hand in the formulation of a mutually interdependent relationship. Societies which have an admixture of importing skilled labor from outside and sending skilled labor abroad know that it is not possible for a skilled workforce to be generated in isolation.
The debate involving brain drain has been going on from 1960 and various factors have been identified like an irredeemable exodus of a skilled population to economies which have a greater knowledge base. This is detrimental to the development of the affected countries. The last stage of this debate does not have any support for the theory of brain drain being a detrimental force and instead argues a contrarian view that developing economies can attract foreign skills to support the development initiative. It favors opening up of policy to encourage external talent as recommended by the OCED to catalyze the development plans instead of fighting brain drain. The new approach to this problem is that only the source country can determine the need for external skills and older approaches on brain drain are of a questionable nature(Fan and yakita, 2011).
Skill generates economic benefits in development and whether the cost of development of indigenous skill offset the advantages of hiring external talent in an export and import situation is not easily resolved. It also needs to be assessed who ultimately benefits in this exercise of manpower poaching. This study has concluded that brain drain might prove to be a losing proposition for the source country if it is too high in numbers. The cost implications of creating a skilled worker are far too high and are a losing proposition in the long run.
In the current era where there is an increased international mobilization of workers and consideration of the cultural factors is an important ingredient determining the impacts of efficiency of a cross cultural workforce. The benefits of this intermingling in the context of the economic impacts on the sourcing and the sourced economy and also to accrued gains to the individual and ultimately the source country are all part of the ongoing debate. It is difficult to conclude whether the brain drain element has a zero, positive or a negative impact in the long run and is a paradoxical situation which is arguable(Fan and yakita, 2011).
Determining the benefits of privatization in the changing times of economic upheavals and creating a situation where everyone is a gainer would enable the creation of equilibrium where brain drain and brain gain balance each other. The conflicting philosophies of capitalism and collective welfare states have to be synchronized in a neoliberal ideology. If this is possible then there is still a chance that the continuous drift of workers from isolated and insulated, countries starved of resources to cities and urban centers can become a mutually beneficial situation. If this happens then increased influence of globalization will not permit the rich and popular to toy with countries which have lesser skilled resources and all talk about benefits of brain drain in the name of philanthropy in the recruitment process and big brother helping out will not be necessary.
Wallerstein”s World System theories, which are in favor of the classical approach to brain drain assessment approaches, thus seem to be valid even now(Fan and yakita, 2011). Therefore, even where there is very small changes in an international brain drain migration it cannot be ignored as it will have some effects on the source country. So losses and gains can be totaled in a zero sum game situation. Remittances and return back of migrant workers to the country where they belong speed up the growth in the sending economies and at the same go towards reduction of migratory pressures. International migration of skilled workers and their migratory influences go on to interact and widen the gaps in the motivational issues.
In conclusion, the question arises as to why brain drains a cause for worry. This is because it results in waste of creative efforts due to inequality. Rising inequality results in blocking growth in the economy. The presence of regional inequalities within a country results in inefficient market interactions and disturbs the creation of equilibrium. The migration of skilled labor is one of the factors in this scenario.